اللغه الهنديه

May 13

اللغه الهنديه

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Mandala - Any of various ritualistic geometric designs symbolic of the universe, used in Hinduism and Buddhism, as an aid to meditation. Tamil mutalai - ball, from Sanskrit mandalam - circle

والسلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته.

الخطوة الثانية: وهو (براهمان) وهو جوهر العالم الواحد الشامل الذي لا هو بذكر ولا هو بانثى، غير مشخص بصفاته، المحتوي لكل شيء - وهذه الكلم



مزيد من المعلومات حول اللغه الهنديه

India is the cradle to one of the first civilizations of the world, founded in the banks of the Lower Indus River in Southern India. This culture flourished from 2500 BC, and was named Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, by contemporary archeologists, after the two main cities found in the excavation sites. There were many languages spoken by these inhabitants during this time, and these are collectively known as Dravidian or Dravidian family of languages.

Though scholars disagree, as to the exact date when Northern India was inhabited, most agree that it maybe a century earlier or later. The inhabitants of this civilization were called the Aryans, since they migrated from the European mainland, from the Caucasian mountainside. They spoke a variety of languages descending from the Indo-European family of languages.

The geographical barriers of rivers, mountains, deserts and forests made it difficult for these languages to mingle, and hence even today, as one country, the languages and dialects spoken in India are very different from each other - either in written script, spoken words, grammar or tones. Further, the many religions, Gods and deities, caste systems and other social and economical factors; have made it possible to nurture many different languages and dialects, within one country.

When considering the two important language families of Dravidian and Indo-Aryan, the first languages that burgeoned from them, are dead today, except in literary composition or liturgy. The languages that stem from the Dravidian family, which are still in use are - Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam and Telegu. These languages are mostly spoken in the South Indian states of Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

The languages spoken in Northern India, flourished from the Indo-Aryan Sanskritic group of the Indo-Iranian branch, which belongs to the larger Indo-European family. Sanskritic, is a completely dead language today, but Sanskrit and Pali, which are the two languages surviving from ancient times, are important even today: Sanskrit is the classical language of India and Hinduism, in which most scriptures (Veda Grantha), epics (Mahabharata, Bhagavat Gita) and ancient literature is written. Pali is used as the liturgical and scholarly language of Theravada Buddhism, as Buddhism first originated in Bihar, India. Most modern languages in North India stems from these two languages, such as Hindi, Urdu, Punajabi, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, Kashmir, Sindhi, Konkani, Rajasthani, Assamese and Oriya.

In addition to these languages from Dravidian and Indo-European families, there are nearly hundred or more dialects, some containing a mixture of both language families. Hence India today, has fifteen official languages. All currency notes, and ninety per cent of government documents bear the scripts of these fifteen languages.

With a culture and heritage as variegated and rich as India is, it is not surprising that the English language absorbed as many as five hundred words during this time, and continue to do so even today. The Oxford English Dictionary currently has 700 words of Indian origin.

Of the words that came into English, there are certain characteristics that are easily recognizable. The first of which that, most words did not have equivalents in English, such as yoga, swastika, khaki, sari, and sati. Some of the words were taken and given a different meaning, as nirvana, kedgeree, Jodhpur. However words were rarely substituted to English words, as it happened during Old English and Middle English periods, with Latin and French words. Rather the words that were borrowed which already had meanings were used to adorn a text or speech since it sounded different and fashionable. Ex: pariah, pundit, purdah.

The pronunciation too, took a different tone, in these Indian borrowings. The important modifications were mainly seen in the sounds of 't' and 'd'. In the North Indian languages 't' is mostly pronounced as 'th', as in thing; while the 'd' is pronounced as 'th' in this. When a word from this region came to English, the sound came with a hard 't' and 'd' as in dungaree (Hindi) and swastika (Sanskrit). The words that came from South Indian languages meanwhile took the exact opposite course, with 't' and 'd', being pronounced softly or not at all: as in cheroot (Tamil churuttu/shuruttu). This maybe because South Indian languages tend to stress the sounds 't' and 'd' more, which Europeans may have considered to be disagreeable to their ear.

Further there are some words which today, we hardly consider as being of Indian origin, such as ginger. This word, although coming to English today as a Latin borrowing, actually has its origin in Dravidian. Some words that have come to English from French or Portuguese have their first roots in an Indian language, such as palanquin & indigo.

Some Indian borrowings are listed below:

Philosophical and Learned Terms

Aryan - A member of the people who spoke the parent language of the Indo-European languages. In Nazism, a Caucasian Gentile, especially Nordic type. Of or relating to Indo-Iranian languages. Sanskrit arya - noble

chakra - One of the seven centers of spiritual energy in the human body according to yoga philosophy. Sanskrit chakram - wheel, circle

dharma - A Buddhist principle and ultimate truth. Social custom and right behavior. Hindu moral law. Hindi dharma, from Sanskrit

Guru - A teacher and a guide in spiritual and philosophical matters. A mentor. A recognized leader in a field. "Fitness Guru" Hindi/Punjab - guru (teacher), from Sanskrit guruh -weighty, heavy, grave

Juggernaut - Something, such as a belief or an institution, that elicits blind and destructive devotion or to which people are ruthlessly sacrificed. An overwhelming, advancing force that crushes or seem to crush everything in its path. The name of the Hindu deity Krishna - Juggernath Hindi Jaganath - Lord Krishna, from Sanskrit jaganatha : jagath -moving/the world + nathah - Lord/God

Mandala - Any of various ritualistic geometric designs symbolic of the universe, used in Hinduism and Buddhism, as an aid to meditation. Tamil mutalai - ball, from Sanskrit mandalam - circle

Source: http://wmich.edu/dialogues/themes/indianwords.htm


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